After Action Report

With one exception, the primary came out much as I expected. Amendments 1, 5, and 9 passed, number 1 narrowly but the other two with very wide margins. Amendment 7 failed, again with wide margins as did Kansas City’s Street Car issue. The Amendments will be in force as soon as the election results are certified.

Great news!

On the Cass County front, Jeff Cox won against Dave Morris for Presiding Commissioner with nearly 60% of the votes and Stacey Lett won against Meryl Lange for Associate Circuit Court Judge by a larger margin against Lange than did Jeff Cox against Morris. The one disappointment was the loss by Ron Johnson against Ryan Wescoat in a race that can only be called a grudge match.

I was not surprised by any of the above. According to information I’ve been receiving this last week, I was not surprised by any of the outcomes. I was given some raw polling information taken about a week to ten days ago covering the Cox, Johnson and Lett races. The election yesterday confirmed the poll taken a week earlier.

In Jackson County, Jacob Turk will run again against Emmanuel Cleaver winning his primary race with almost 69% of the votes. I’m not sure how many times Turk has run against Cleaver, but he gains more ground every time. Perhaps this time he’ll beat out Cleaver in the Kansas City democrat enclave. Congratulations to Jacob Turk on his primary win.

The Missouri House is now complete. Three new ‘Pub legislators, elected via special election to fill three vacancies, will be sworn in on September 10th just in time for the Veto Override session. Jay Nixon had failed to fill those vacancies leaving the Republican majority weakened. With the three new legislators, the ‘Pubs once again have a veto proof margin in the House.

THE NEXT LEGISLATURE — ‘GOP regains veto-proof majority in Missouri House,’ AP: “Republicans regained a two-thirds majority in the Missouri House on Tuesday heading into a big showdown with Democratic Gov. Jay Nixon over his vetoes of tax breaks, abortion restrictions and other issues. Republicans won two of the three special elections for vacant House seats. That will give them 110 House seats – one more than the two-thirds majority required to override vetoes. Republicans already hold a two-thirds majority in the Senate. Republican Shawn Sisco, of Rolla, won in the 120th District while Republican Tila Hubrecht, of Dexter, won in the 151st District. Democrat Alan Green, of Florissant, was leading in a special election for the 67th District. The special election winners are expected to be sworn into office by Sept. 10, when lawmakers will convene to consider overriding Nixon’s vetoes of 32 bills and 136 budget sections. … The Legislature’s September agenda includes the consideration of veto overrides on a series of bills granting tax breaks to particular businesses, which Nixon contends could bust a hole in the budget. Republican legislative leaders say the measures could help the economy while overturning what they describe as misinterpretations of tax policies by the courts and the Department of Revenue. Nixon said the numerous budget vetoes were needed because of falling state revenues and to guard against the potential for the Legislature to override his vetoes on the tax breaks. Among Nixon’s other high-profile vetoes are bills extending Missouri’s one-day abortion waiting period to 72 hours and allowing specially trained teachers to carry concealed guns in public schools. The special elections were called after incumbents resigned for a variety of reasons. Republican Rep. Jason Smith, of Salem, stepped down from the 120th District seat after winning a special election to Congress in June 2013.” — PoliticMO Newsletter, August 6, 2014 and The Southeast Missourian.

Taken as a whole, the primary was good for republicans.

The next battlefield—Kansas

The Battle of Mississippi in the GOP civil war is drawing to a close. The result is still in doubt. For the establishment GOP its Pyrrhic victory may evolve to defeat in November.

Chris McDaniel is investigating what appears to be massive vote fraud—democrats crossing over to vote in the run-off. That’s illegal in Mississippi. More than 1,000 fraudulent votes have been found already. Haley Barbour is being investigated about robo-calls to black claiming a McDaniel win will mean an end to welfare and other false claims. Reports of vote buying by the GOP establishment are also under investigation, one that may cause Cochran being removed from the ballot in November. The Washington GOP, through the NRSC, had dumped a ton of money into Mississippi to support Thad Cochran.

Why would a Cochran victory be Pyrrhic? Because the GOP has tainted the well. If Cochran versus the democrat is the choice in November, why would the GOP expect all those alienated conservatives to vote for Cochran? If that is the choice, I would expect conservatives to just not vote for Cochran and the democrat may win. When people see no clear choice, they may choose to not choose at all.

The NRSC is doing the same in another state—Kansas. Pat Roberts, a 47-year Washington veteran who hasn’t lived in Kansas for decades, is being challenged by Dr. Milton Wolf. The NRSC is dumping more and more money into Kansas against Wolf—another Tea Partier challenging a GOP establishment stalwart and political rubber-stamp.

Remember Mississippi, and FIGHT. LIKE. HELL. in Kansas

This Independence Day, the American Revolution endures

Conservatives, this is your call to arms, and Kansas is the battlefield.

The truth of the Mississippi Betrayal hurts. GOP party bosses have declared an all-out war on conservatives and betrayed our Republican Party itself in the process. The GOP establishment in general and the National Republican Senate Committee (NRSC) in particular have some serious explaining to do.

America is descending into a struggle, less about Republicans versus Democrats and more about the permanent ruling class versus the American citizens. The NRSC betrayed the wishes of its Republican donors by diverting their hard-earned money from their stated goal of defeating Democrats and instead used the funds in Mississippi where they defeated a conservative Republican. The betrayal included outrageous and false charges of racism against a fellow Republican where they actually joined league with liberal Democrats including explosive evidence that Sen. Thad Cochran’s campaign possibly funded an illegal vote-buying scheme.

The party boss behind the NRSC’s bone-headed betrayal is Kansas’ own Sen. Jerry Moran. The NRSC spent over $200 thousand and deployed an army of staffers and volunteers to knock tens of thousands of doors and ring tens of thousands of phones in Mississippi to join league with liberal Democrats and defeat Chris McDaniel for the sin of being a constitutional conservative.

This was never about defeating Democrats or winning a Republican majority in the Senate. RNC chairman Reince Priebus admitted that Mississippi was not in play for Democrats. Faced with the ugly truth on the KCMO Morning Show with Greg Knapp, NRSC Chairman Sen. Jerry Moran confessed, “First of all, the NRSC is not the Republican Party.” He excused the betrayal with an  unusually candid confession that the NRSC “supports Republican incumbent senators to help them get reelected. That’s an important aspect of its mission.”

Kansas is the new Ground Zero.

And now the NRSC is circling the wagons around another insider favorite, my GOP primary opponent, Sen. Pat Roberts who has been in Washington for 47 years. Like Thad Cochran, Roberts’ record is lackluster at best. Roberts is posing as a conservative during an election year. Before I challenged him, however, Pat Roberts’ 2012 scorecard at Club For Growth was 55 and at FreedomWorks was 54. He voted for Barack Obama’s $600 billion fiscal cliff tax hike and to raise the debt ceiling 11 different times. Pat Roberts even voted to put Kathleen Sebelius in charge of ObamaCare.

Perhaps most offensive, Pat Roberts doesn’t even have a home in Kansas. He first ran for Congress using a vacant lot in Dodge City (where he has never lived) as his official address. He scrambled to rent a bedroom from a donor where he brags that he has full access to the recliner.” (I’m going to give him permanent access to that recliner.) The Kansas GOP circled the wagons around Pat Roberts by empaneling a board of his public endorsers to declare he can remain on the ballot despite having declared that his Virginia home is his primary residence.

Playing the insider game, Sen. Pat Roberts contributed $5,000 from his PAC to Thad Cochran’s campaign which is now accused of the illegal Democrat vote-buying scandal.

We must start acting like the Americans we were meant to be: sovereign citizens of the republic, not subjects of a permanent ruling class. Our Founders conquered a continent and fought a revolution to escape a permanent ruling class. We must not be the generation that surrenders it. We must not squander the blessings of liberty they provided.

This Independence Day the American Revolution endures and the battlefield is Kansas. Step up. Join the revolution. Contribute. Volunteer. Say a prayer for our nation. Get involved.

Remember Mississippi, and FIGHT. LIKE. HELL. in Kansas.

Kansas Senator and NRSC Chairman Jerry Moran was on Greg Knapp’s local radio talk show. Knapp asked Moran directly about the NRSC’s role in the Mississippi primary and about the robo-calls and other reports of political abuse and illegalities. Moran, at first, didn’t answer the question, skirting the issue. Under pressure, he distanced himself claiming the NRSC had no control over expenditures after donating the money. Moran didn’t answer the followup question, “Who received the NRSC’s money?”

That same station is running back-to-back ads by the Robert’s campaign claiming Wolf ridiculed patient x-rays on Facebook. When pressed for proof, Robert’s people never responded but they continue to make the same unsupported claims. The say Wolf violated ethics conventions. They ignore Robert’s own ethics issues. A typical tactic of the GOP establishment.

The Missouri primary is less than a month away, August 5th. Missourians, like Kansans must make choices. Fortunately, the MO GOP is responding better than the leadership in Kansas and Mississippi. If they want to gain control of the Governor’s mansion and retain control of the statehouse, they had better support the grassroots conservatives across the state…or, else! Remember what happened to the Whigs.

Election Issue: Sales Tax Increase

August 5, 2014 is the Missouri Primary. In addition to selecting candidates for the general election in November, there are a number of other issues added to the ballot. I’ve mentioned one Missouri Constitutional amendment passed in the legislature as SJR 36. That is Constitutional amendment #5.

There will be another issue on the ballot—raising the sales tax for Transportation. The state and counties like St Louis, has been wasting their highway maintenance money for decades. A couple of years ago, the state started repairing a number of small bridges throughout the state.

St Louis, on the other hand, did not. They just continued to whine for more state money. And…they have the unions and construction companies on their side; lusting after that tax money.

If you read the description from Ballotpedia above and scroll down the page, you will see the list of supporters for this tax increase. There is a wide spread surge of political ads across Missouri in support of this tax increase. Most of the funding is by MISSOURIANS FOR SAFE TRANSPORTATION & NEW JOBS INC. This organization is a front created by the construction unions in Missouri.

I was given a link yesterday that disclosed the contributions to this orgranization. Here is the contributions for one day, June 25, 2014.

C131133 06/26/2014 MISSOURIANS FOR SAFE TRANSPORTATION & NEW JOBS INC The Monarch Cement Company PO Box 1000 Humboldt KS 66748 6/25/2014 $10,000.00
C131133 06/26/2014 MISSOURIANS FOR SAFE TRANSPORTATION & NEW JOBS INC Central Plains Cement LLC 2200 North Courtney Road Sugar Creek MO 64050 6/25/2014 $25,000.00
C131133 06/26/2014 MISSOURIANS FOR SAFE TRANSPORTATION & NEW JOBS INC Ash Grove Cement Company PO Box 25900 Overland Park KS 66225 6/25/2014 $10,000.00
C131133 06/26/2014 MISSOURIANS FOR SAFE TRANSPORTATION & NEW JOBS INC Continental Cement Co LLC 10107 Highway 79 Hannibal MO 63401 6/25/2014 $20,000.00
C131133 06/26/2014 MISSOURIANS FOR SAFE TRANSPORTATION & NEW JOBS INC Pace Construction Company 1620 Woodson Road St Louis MO 63114 6/25/2014 $17,500.00
C131133 06/26/2014 MISSOURIANS FOR SAFE TRANSPORTATION & NEW JOBS INC Massman Construction Co PO Box 8458 Kansas City MO 64114 6/25/2014 $50,000.00

If you add the contributions, it adds up to $132,500 in just one day! If you want a real eye-opener, use the Advanced search option on that webpage, enter the month of June 2014 for the beginning and end search dates, with the Committee ID (MECID) of C131133.

Never let it be said the dems—and a few RINOs, never saw a tax increase they didn’t like. Especially if they can grab some of it for themselves. Unions are having trouble justifying their exorbitant pay scales. Here, they have a captive supplier and they see an opportunity to seize taxpayer money and they’re willing to spend millions to get it.

Lies and Politics

Casa Crucis is only a few miles from the Missouri-Kansas border. It’s not unusual to hear Kansan political ads on the radio. The big battle in Kansas is that between incumbent US Senator Pat Roberts and Tea Partier Milton Wolfe. Both are running to be the ‘Pub Senatorial candidate in the upcoming Primary

The campaign turned nasty from the beginning—from the Robert’s people. Milton Wolfe correctly, and truthfully, pointed out that Roberts has no permanent residence in Kansas. In Roberts’ own words, he leases a recliner in a friend’s home. Roberts has had no residence in Kansas for decades, but he still claims to be a Kansan.

I expected Roberts to refute Wolfe’s claims. He did not. Instead, he went directly to smear mode. He produced supposed Facebook posts from Wolfe that supposedly disrespected clients and making disrespectful comments about some X-Rays.

I have to admit that I’m biased towards Milton Wolfe. I’ve heard him speak and was impressed with his comments and goals. When Roberts released that ad, my immediately thought was how did Roberts get those Facebook comments? Did he hack Wolfe’s account? Did he hire some hackers to do so. Were those comments real? Nothing I’ve been able to find supports Roberts claims.

To the best that I’ve been able to determine, the ad against Milton Wolfe is a complete fabrication. It the comments were accurate, then Roberts broke the law by hacking Wolfe’s Facebook account or having it hacked. I suspect Roberts’ motivation is a poll that shows Wolfe has a strong following in Kansas.

In the end, the question is more whom can you trust? Wolfe who has the facts readily available to support his claims about Roberts non-Kansas residency, or Roberts smear tactics? Personally, I will not support any candidate who chooses to use smear tactics as his primary campaign plan.

Roberts is a long time establishment ‘Pub, a buddy of Mitch McConnell. It’s time for both of them to go.

***

Local Missouri politics aren’t much, if any, better. Here in Cass County, the battle is between the current conservative ‘Pub candidates against the old county Oligarchy. Jeff Cox, whom I support both in time and money, is running for Presiding Commissioner. He was elected to fill a partial, two-year term to complete the term of the previous Commissioner who was removed from office, not for malfeasance, but because of an out-of-state felony conviction. I’ll not go into the background on that, it’s not pertinent in this election.

In the previous county government, two ‘Pubs quit. One, when some questionable contracts were exposed, quit in mid-term. The other, also reportedly involved in questionable contracts and possible fraud, chose to not run for re-election. That last former commission now plans on being the county puppet-master with a personal string of proxy office holders. He already has one in office, the northern county commissioner.

The county Auditor, Ron Johnson, has a primary opponent, too. That opponent is a former employee who was fired for cause and is now one of the Oligarchy’s puppets. It was Ron Johnson who exposed all the fraud and deceit in the former county administration. The Kansas City Star printed an expose about the machinations of the Cass County Oligarchy.

Government Watch | For years, Cass County could be paying for failed broadband and energy projects

April 22, 2014, By DONALD BRADLEY, The Kansas City Star

A recent day in an upstairs office in the Cass County courthouse, Presiding Commissioner Jeff Cox used the acronym “BMT.

 

County Auditor Ron Johnson smiled.

“Before my time,” Johnson explained.

These days, the two talk a lot about things before their time in office and they want to make sure people, particularly voters, know they were nowhere around when two of those things came to be.

Why?

Because the county’s broadband fiber network and Tri-Gen, a generator built to provide electrical power to the Justice Center, both were colossal failures that the county will be paying on for years with nothing in return.

Tri-Gen alone is costing the county $175,000 this budget year, not counting legal expenses.

Both projects were approved by officials no longer in office.

“Mistakes were made in recent years that will take years to recover from,” Cox said.

Today, broadband is dead in the ditch and Tri-Gen is shut down and the subject of lawsuits.

Gary Mallory, who was presiding commissioner when both projects began, declined to comment.

Cox and Johnson hope voters this year don’t hold either of them responsible. They wonder, too, if ending the two projects has anything to do with them facing primary opposition in August.

Killing broadband was difficult, Johnson said, but it was a decision that may have kept the county from filing for bankruptcy.

“We had to take the least bad option,” Johnson said.

To be sure, the county did go through a time of turmoil. The very day a newly elected presiding commissioner was sworn into office, the county prosecutor filed suit to remove him because of a felony conviction.

Another commissioner resigned. The other chose not to seek re-election.

All the while, the broadband and Tri-Gen projects — which began with high hopes and multimillion-dollar price tags — were struggling.

Broadband kicked off in 2011 with the goal of providing high-speed Internet access to 12,000 households and hundreds of businesses in rural areas. The $26 million cost would come from government grants and low-interest loans.

But the federal government withheld grants because of a delay in a county audit. Some contractors did not get paid. One filed suit against the county. The project suffered, too, from not having enough inspectors.

Cox studied the viability of the project after taking office last year. He decided to kill it.

It’s unknown how much money the county will eventually pay for the project. That will depend on the outcome of litigation and whether federal money ever comes through.

Tri-Gen, which would use renewable energy from sweet sorghum silage to produce methane gas, came on board in 2008 when county officials agreed to build the generator at a cost of $15 million. The idea was to provide energy to the Justice Center and then sell leftover power on the open grid.

But it turned out, they were prohibited by regulation from selling surplus power — a fact they were unaware of until threatened with litigation. But it didn’t matter much anyway because, according to Cox, the science behind the project wasn’t viable.

Cox said a pilot project at the University of Central Missouri never worked.

“You don’t build a multimillion-dollar generator without making sure the science works first,” Cox said. “It was a mistake. The county had no business getting involved in that.

“That said, the county was sold a bill of goods.”

Last June, the county sued Universal Asset Management, the contractor for Tri-Gen, and the head of the company, Gary Lee. The suit alleges breach of contract, professional negligence, fraud and misrepresentation.

Universal Asset Management was also the company behind the broadband project. The phone number listed on the company’s webpage is no longer in use.

About a year earlier, Lee and UAM had sued Johnson and Cass County alleging breach of contract.

Lee and his attorney could not be reached for comment.

Meanwhile, the county is stuck with bills for both. This year’s budget shows $175,000 went to debt service for Tri-Gen, an outlay that may continue for decades.

“When I think of all the things we could have used that money for — sheriff deputies, road repairs,” Cox said. “It’s hard not to be a little angry.

“And we’re going to be paying a long time.”

What about that fired employee who is now running against Ron Johnson? He was fired for releasing documents, without authority, to UAM. His mentor in his campaign against Ron Johnson is an employee of UAM, the former county commissioner who was deeply involved in issuing those fraudulent contracts to UAM. Millions of dollars in those contracts are still unaccounted for and the basis for a number of lawsuits.

What is the motivation of this clandestine oligarchy? Perhaps it is an attempt to hide their actions being investigated by federal authorities. Perhaps it is an attempt to gain control of those offices whose current holders exposed their actions. Control of those offices would allow them to hinder further investigation. Or, perhaps, it is just plain, old, lust for power by any means.

Whatever the motivation, their tactics should be familiar to anyone observant to county politics. They use the same tactics as do democrats.

But there are honest, ethical commissioners in the county, Jeff Cox and one other commissioner. Who is Cox’s best ally in regaining fiscal health to the county? It is the southern county commission—a democrat. The other commissioner, a supposed ‘Pub who hasn’t met a TIF he didn’t like, is a member of the Oligarchy. Many of the county executive decisions are made with a two-vote majority (of the three possible votes.) That majority is Jeff Cox, the presiding commissioner, and the democrat southern commissioner.

It’s significant when the democrat southern commissioner is more interested and involved in keeping the county’s finances in the black while the so-called ‘pub, northern commissioner wants to spend, spend, spend.

 

Read more here: http://www.kansascity.com/2014/04/22/4976141/government-watch-for-years-cass.html#storylink=cpy

Followup to an election

Our local elections were held yesterday. All-in-all, three of the four candidates that I voted for won and two of the  three city issues that I voted for passed. The third issue passed, too, but I didn’t vote for it. It was too vaguely worded to understand what it was changing, consequently, I voted against it.

In our local school board election, two ‘conservatives’ won plus one flaming lib. In all, I don’t think the slant of the school board has changed. It seems that all the board members roll over to the union and suck up for more state and federal money. I hope the two that I voted for hinder, as much as they can, the slide towards social education indoctrination that masquerades as education.

http://www.freep.com/assets/freep/graphic/C4197855127.JPGIn Jefferson City, Right To Work (RTW) is coming to a vote in the House. Twelve ‘Pubs have said they would vote against RTW. Many of them are dependent on campaign funds from unions and won’t vote against their paymasters.

Burlison seeks outside help in lead-up to ‘right-to-work’ vote

JEFFERSON CITY, Mo. – When a number of Republicans quietly raised objections to taking a vote on ‘right-to-work’ in private caucus meetings, some Republicans decided to increase the pressure from the outside.

More than a dozen Republican members – including Wanda Brown, Paul Curtman, Chuck Gatchenberger, Casey Guernsey, Ron Hicks, Jim Neely, Donna Pfautsch, Craig Redmon, Jeannie Riddle, Noel Shull, Brian Spencer, T.J. Berry Noel Torpey, and Kathy Swan – apparently raised objections to taking a vote on the issue to Rep. Eric Burlison, the bill’s House sponsor, in private meetings.

Burlison slipped much of the whip count to Republicans involved with assisting outside conservative groups. The list was sent in a March 24 email to the lobbyist for the National Federation of Independent Businesses, for example, and other outside groups have relied on the same list. With the information, national interests have increased their pressure as a potential vote in the House seems imminent. .

Groups like FreedomWorks, in the lead up to a potential vote, began targeting lawmakers like Reps. T.J. Berry, R-Independence and Chuck Gatchenberger, R-St. Charles.

They are not the only ones to watch if the bill comes up in the Missouri House. Twenty Republicans voted against ‘paycheck protection’ when it arose in the House last week, a less strict restriction on union activity. The bill passed with just one vote to spare.

It’s going to be a rough legislative session in Jeff City. We’re in a weaker position this year than last year and many (most? all?), of the bills will be vetoed by Jay Nixon. That will drive another veto session next September. It is possible we would have more success this coming September. September leads into the November elections. Perhaps some RINOs, mindful of the coming election will vote to override Nixon’s veto. Or…maybe not.

In any case, we must keep the pressure on even if it means allowing a RINO to lose to a dem. With a dem, we know where we stand. With a RINO, we must be always watchful for the knife in the back. Why bother voting for a RINO when the end result is the same?

I did not vote for a city councilman this election. One was running unopposed. He was a member of the county oligarchy. By that I mean he was a member of a group who wants control of the county regardless of party. This group was responsible for the disastrous Broadband project that wasted millions of county money, a large segment, millions, disappeared and cannot be accounted for. This councilman candidate had no opponent. I still didn’t vote for him. He did receive a couple of hundred votes, I believe.

That’s local politics and, someone said, all politics are local. I agree. Local politics is where the battles begin.

Election Day: the Start of the Political Season

http://cmsimg.fdlreporter.com/apps/pbcsi.dll/bilde?Avis=U0&Dato=99999999&Kategori=FON&Lopenr=140326041&Ref=AR&MaxW=280&Election-2014Today is Election Day in Cass County. The elections are for some city council seats, a few mayoral races and for school and other boards across the county.

Locally, there are three amendments to our city charter—no tax deadbeats nor felons can run for mayor or city council and language to modify citizen-led petitions. Mrs. Crucis and I will go vote later this morning.

These elections are non-partisan. That means there is no party identification which makes it more difficult to choose which ones are wolves in sheep clothing. You had to really dig this time around to determine their positions because the libs and progressives know that if their real agenda was known, they would likely not be elected.

Here’s my rule-of-thumb deciding for whom to vote. First for city council: does the candidate promote section 8 housing (at least one here does,) wasteful spending (we don’t need a community center when there is one just three miles down the road,) and/or ‘sustainability.’ If the candidate has a record of supporting any of these issues, or has supported these issues outside of office, I’ll not vote for them.

Likewise for school board: if the candidate supports the teacher’s unions, more spending but less accountability, or Common Core, they will not get my vote. There is one school board candidate who has been soft on spending and unions that I’ve not yet decided whether that candidate will get my vote. I probably won’t decided until I’m about to mark my ballot. That happens sometimes. There is nothing that says I have to vote for every open position.

This Election Day is for local positions and issues. County, state and federal elections will come later, a primary this summer and national mid-term elections in the Fall.

The political season is upon us. This election will likely be small if it follows the trend of previous years. Some folks just can’t get worked up over local issues and elections. The worst of it all is that these local elections can be more important in people’s daily lives than many of the broader issues and elections decided later this year. What can be more important that the qualify and effectiveness of your children’s education? Many, myself included, believe public schools have stopped educating students and instead are indoctrinating them to be unquestioning young progressives.

I hope you all are registered and will go vote today!

Things that make me…

Laugh.

I really shouldn’t chuckle at this news item. The article doesn’t mention the victim’s political views, just his profession in an institution known for being a liberal haven. It really isn’t something to applaud, being an assault on someone in the pursuit of his profession.

On the other hand, I also have a strong sense of, “What goes around, comes around,” and fair turnabout, or just retribution. It’s root issue probably isn’t any of those but…it’s still funny to me.

GMU law professor pepper sprayed during lecture